We propose a practical method for synthesizing plausible fire sounds that are synchronized with physically based fire animations. To enable synthesis of combustion sounds without incurring the cost of time-stepping fluid simulations at audio rates, we decompose our synthesis procedure into two components.
First, a low-frequency flame sound is synthesized using a physically based combustion sound model driven with data from a visual flame simulation run at a relatively low temporal sampling rate.
Second, we propose two bandwidth extension methods for synthesizing additional high-frequency flame sound content: (1) spectral bandwidth extension which synthesizes higher-frequency noise matching combustion sound spectra from theory and experiment; and (2) data-driven texture synthesis to synthesize high-frequency content based on input flame sound recordings. Various examples and comparisons are presented demonstrating plausible flame sounds, from small candle flames to large flame jets.
Paper | Citation | Video | Video (Youtube) | Press | Source Code | Presentation Slides | Acknowledgements
Jeffrey N. Chadwick and Doug L. James, Animating Fire with Sound, ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2011), 30(4), August, 2011 (TeX)
Paper video: FireSound2011.mov (Quicktime, H264 59MB)
New Scientist - Fire-breathing dragon roars to life
Source code for the spectral bandwidth extension and sound texture
synthesis algorithms used in the paper can be downloaded here.
The bandwidth extension algorithm is implemented in Matlab, and
C++ code is provided for sound texture synthesis.
SIGGRAPH 2011 Presentation:
The National Science Foundation (HCC-0905506)